Bharat Ka Veer Putra -Maharana Pratap

   

Maharana Pratap : The History.

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In 1567, when Crown Prince Pratap Singh was only 27, Chittor was surrounded by the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar. Maharana Udai Singh II decided to leave Chittor and move his family to Gogunda, rather than capitulate to the Mughals. The young Pratap Singh wanted to stay back and fight the Mughals but the elders intervened and convinced him to leave Chittor, oblivious of the fact that this move from Chittor was going to create history for all times to come.

In Gogunda, Maharana Udai Singh II and his nobles set up a temporary government of the kindom of Mewar. In 1572, the Maharana passed away, leaving the way for Crown Prince Pratap Singh to become the Maharana. However, in his later years, the late Maharana Udai Singh II had fallen under the influence of his favorite queen, Rani Bhatiyani, and had willed that her son Jagmal should ascend to the throne. As the late Maharana's body was being taken to the cremation grounds, Pratap Singh, the Crown Prince decided to accompany the dead body of the Maharana. This was a departure from tradition as the Crown Prince did not accompany the body of the departed Maharana but instead prepared to ascend the throne, such that the line of succession remained unbroken. Pratap Singh, in deference to his father's wishes, decided to let his half-brother Jagmal become the next king. However, knowing this to be disastrous for Mewar, the late Maharana's nobles, especially the Chundawat Rajputs, forced Jagmal to leave the throne to Pratap Singh. Unlike Bharat, Jagmal did not willingly give up the throne. He swore revenge and left for Ajmer, to join the armies of Akbar, where he was offered a jagir - the town of Jahazpur - in return for his help. Meanwhile, Crown Prince Pratap Singh became Maha Rana Pratap Singh I, 54th ruler of Mewar in the line of the Sisodiya Rajputs.

he year was 1572. Pratap Singh had just become the Maharana of Mewar and he had not been back in Chittor since 1567. His old fort and his home beckoned to him. The pain of his father's death, and the fact that his father had not been able to see Chittor again, troubled the young Maharana deeply. But he was not the only one troubled at this time. Akbar had control of Chittor but not the kingdom of Mewar. So long as the people of Mewar swore by their Maharana, Akbar could not realize his ambition of being the Jahanpanah of Hindustan. He had sent several emissaries to Mewar to get Rana Pratap to agree to sign a treaty but the letter was only willing to sign a peace treaty whereby the sovereignty of Mewar would be intact. In the course of the year 1573, Akbar sent six diplomatic missions to Mewar to get Rana Pratap to agree to the former's suzerainty but Rana Pratap turned down each one of them. The last of these missions was headed by Raja Man Singh, the brother-in-law of Akbar himself. Maharana Pratap, angered that his fellow Rajput was aligned with someone who had forced the submission of all Rajputs, refused to sup with Raja Man Singh. The lines were completely drawn now - Akbar understood that Maharana Pratap would never submit and he would have to use his troops against Mewar.

With the failure of efforts to negotiate a peace treaty in 1573, Akbar blockaded Mewar from the rest of the world and alienated Mewar's traditional allies, some of whom were Maharana Pratap's own kith and kin. Akbar then tried to turn the people of the all-important Chittor district against their king so they would not help Pratap. He appointed Kunwar Sagar Singh, a younger brother of Pratap, to rule the conquered territory, However, Sagar, regretting his own treachery, soon returned from Chittor, and committed suicide with a dagger in the Mughal Court. Shakti Singh, Pratap's younger brother now with the Mughal army, is said to have fled the Mughal court temporarily and warned his brother of Akbar's actions.

In preparation for the inevitable war with the Mughals, Maharana Pratap altered his administration. He moved his capital to Kumbhalgarh, where he was born. He commanded his subjects to leave for the Aravali mountains and leave behind nothing for the approaching enemy - the war would be fought in a mountain terrain which the Mewar army was used to but not the Mughals. It is a testament to the young king's respect amongst his subjects that they obeyed him and left for the mountains. The Bhils of the Aravalis were completely behind him. The army of Mewar now raided Mughal trade caravans going from Delhi to Surat. A section of his army guarded the all important Haldighati Pass, the only way to get into Udaipur from the North. Maharana Pratap himself undertook several penances, not because his finances forced him to do so, but because he wished to remind himself, and all his subjects, why they were undertaking this pain - to win back their freedom, their right to exist as they wished. He foreswore that he would eat from leaf-plates, would sleep on the floor and would not shave. In his self-inflicted state of penury, the Maharana lived in mud-huts made from mud and bamboo.


In 1576, the famous battle of Haldighati was fought with 20,000 Rajputs against a Mughal army of 80,000 men commanded by Raja Man Singh. The battle was fierce though indecisive, to the Mughal army's astonishment. Maharana Pratap's army was not defeated but Maharana Pratap was surrounded by Mughal soldiers. It is said that at this point, his estranged brother,Shakti Singh, appeared and saved the Rana's life. Another casualty of this war was Maharana Pratap's famous, and loyal, horse Chetak, who gave up his life trying to save his Maharana.

After this war, Akbar tried several times to take over Mewar, failing each time. Maharana Pratap himself was keeping up his quest for taking Chittor back. However, the relentless attacks of the Mughal army had left his army weaker, and he barely had enough money to keep it going. It is said that at this time, one of his ministers, Bhama Shah, came and offered him all this wealth - a sum enabling Maharana Pratap to support an army of 25,000 for 12 years. It is said that before this generous gift from Bhama Shah, Maharana Pratap, anguished at the state of his subjects, was beginning to lose his spirit in fighting Akbar.


In one incident that caused him extreme pain, his children's meal - bread made from grass - was stolen by a dog. It is said that this cut into Maharana Pratap's heart deeply. He began to have doubts about his resolute refusal to submit to the Mughals. Perhaps in one of these moments of self doubt - something each and every human being goes through - Maharana Pratap wrote to Akbar demanding "a mitigation of his hardship". Overjoyed at this indication of his valiant foe's submission, Akbar commanded public rejoicing, and showed the letter to a literate Rajput at his Court, Prince Prithiraj. He was the younger brother of Rai Singh, the ruler of Bikaner, a State established some eighty years earlier by the Rathores of Marwar. He had been compelled to serve Akbar because of his kingdom's submission to the Mughals. An award-winning poet, Prithiraj was also a gallant warrior and a longtime admirer of the brave Maharana Pratap Singh. He was astonished and grieved by Maharana Pratap's decision, and told Akbar the note was the forgery of some foe to defame the Mewar king. "I know him well," he explained, "and he would never submit to your terms." He requested and obtained Akbar's permission to send a letter to Pratap, ostensibly to ascertain the fact of his submission, but really with a view to prevent it. He composed the couplets that have become famous in the annals of patriotism:


The hopes of the Hindu rest on the Hindu; yet the Rana forsakes them. But for Pratap, all would be placed on the same level by Akbar; for our chiefs have lost their valour and our females their honour. Akbar is the broker in the market of our race: he has purchased all but the son of Udai (Singh II of Mewar); he is beyond his price. What true Rajput would part with honour for nine days (nauroza); yet how many have bartered it away? Will Chittor come to this market ...? Though Patta (an affectionate name for Pratap Singh) has squandered away wealth (on warfare), yet he has preserved this treasure. Despair has driven man to this market, to witness their dishonour: from such infamy the descendant of Hamir (Hamir Singh) alone has been preserved. The world asks, from where does the concealed aid of Pratap emanate? None but the soul of manliness and his sword ... The broker in the market of men (Akbar) will one day be surpassed; he cannot live forever. Then will our race come to Pratap, for the seed of the Rajput to sow in our desolate lands. To him all look for its preservation, that its purity may again become resplendent.

The now-famous letter led to Pratap reversing his decision and not submitting to the Mughals, as was his initial but reluctant intention. After 1587, Akbar relinquished his obsessive pursuit of Maharana Pratap and took his battles into Punjab and India's Northwest Frontier. Thus for the last ten years of his life, Maharana Pratap ruled in relative peace and eventually freed most of Mewar, including Udaipur and Kumbhalgarh, but not Chittor. Bhagwat Singh Mewar: "Maharana Pratap Singh (was) called the light and life of the Hindu community. There were times when he and his family and children ate bread made of grass." Maharana Pratap became a patron of the Arts. During his reign Padmavat Charita and the poems of Dursa Ahada were written. Palaces at Ubheshwar, Kamal Nath and Chavand bear testimony to his love of architecture. These buildings, built in the dense hilly forest have walls adorned with military-style architecture. But Pratap's broken spirit overpowered him in the twilight of his years. His last moments were an appropriate commentary on his life, when he swore his successor, Crown Prince Amar Singh to eternal conflict against the foes of his country's independence. Maharana Pratap was never able to win back Chittor but he never gave up fighting to win it back.

In January 1597, Rana Pratap Singh I, Mewar's greatest hero, was seriously injured in a hunting accident. He left his body at Chavand, aged 56, on January 29, 1597. He died fighting for his nation, for his people, and most importantly for his honor.




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Maharana Pratap




Maharana Pratap
The Ruler of Mewar
Figure of MAHARAN PRATAP on his horse.JPG
Reign 15681597
Born 9 May 1540
Birthplace Pali-Marwar, Rajasthan
Died 29 January 1597 (age 57)
Predecessor Maharana Udai Singh II
Consort to Maharani Ajbade Punwar
Royal House Sisodia, Suryavanshi Rajput
Father Maharana Udai Singh II
Children Maharana Amar Singh
Bhagwan Das
Other 1 son and 2 daughters
Religious beliefs Hindu,

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Introduction


Maharana Pratap About this sound pronunciation (helpinfo) or Pratap Singh (9 May 1540  29 January 1597) was a Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. In popular Indian culture, Pratap is considered to exemplify the qualities like bravery and chivalry to which Rajputs aspire, especially in context of his opposition to the Mughal emperor Akbar. The struggle between Rajput confederacy led by Pratap Singh, and the Mughal Empire under Akbar, has often been characterised as a struggle between Hindus and the invading hordes of Muslims, much on the same lines as the struggle between Shivaji and Aurangzeb a little less than a century later.

Maharana Pratap was a Hindu Rajput. He saw the Mughals as foreigners who had invaded India and therefore refused to surrender to them or accept their rule. His father, Udai Singh, had condemned the house of Man Singh for their marriage with unclean foreigners and Pratap Singh said that he would call Akbar only a "Turk" and not an emperor.




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Accession

In 1568, during the reign of Pratap's father Rana Udai Singh II, Chittaur, the capital of Mewar, was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. Udai Singh had left Chittaur in the care of Jaimal, a Mertiyo Rathore and Jaimal's nephew Fateh. Maharana Pratap wanted to stay back for the defence of Chittaur but Mewar nobles convinced him to leave. Akbar had demanded Jaimal's daughter's hand in marriage. Unlike other Rajputs during this chapter of Rajput history, Jaimal refused and chose his honour above his safety. Because of this incident, many famous ballads have been written in Rajasthan ("Jaimal-Fateh/Patta") and are sung all over Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. There was a Jauhar (self immolation by ladies to save themselves from falling in enemy hands) and Jaimal and Fateh/Patta died in the saka[1](fight until death). Before Chittaur was beseiged by Akbar, Udai Singh moved the capital to his residence at Udaipur, a town that he founded, in a more defensible location in the foothills of the Aravalli Range. In 1572 after Udai Singh's death, Pratap became Rana of Mewar with the support of the elder nobles. Udai Singh wanted his son Jagmal to ascend the throne but Mewar nobles favored Pratap, the eldest son. It was a beginning of a lifelong battle for the retaking of Chittaur.[2]

Statue of Maharana Pratap of Mewar at Udaipur

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Turning point

The turning point again came in 1582 when Rana Pratap defeated the Mughal army in Dewair( the northern entry point of Mewar connecting Marwar, Gujarat, Malwa and Ajmer). From this battle onwards Rana Pratap moved from being defensive to offensive and in a very short time he regained all the lost land of Mewar except Ajmer and Chittor which he could not conquer till his demise.

Final days

Maharana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident.[3] He died at Chavand, which served as his capital,[4][5] on 29 January 1597, aged fifty-seven.[6] A chhatri, commemorating Pratap Singh's funeral, exists in Chavand and is an important tourist attraction today [7] It is said that as he lay dying, Pratap made his son and successor, Amar Singh, swear to maintain eternal conflict against the Mughals.[8] Rana Pratap's son, Rana Amar Singh, fought 17 wars with the Mughals. After Mewar was depleted financially and in man-power he conditionally accepted them as rulers. The treaty between Amar Singh and Mughal King Jahangir had some obligations that fort of Chittor would not be repaired and Mewar would have to keep a contingent of 1000 horse in the Mughal service.[9] Besides Amar Singh would not have to be present at any of the Mughal Darbars. At this time, many members of Maharana Pratap's family of Sisodias, band of loyal Rajputs became disillusioned by the surrender and left Rajasthan. This group included Rathores, Deora Chauhans, Pariharas, Tanwars, Kacchwaha and Jhalas. They are called Rors and settled mostly in Haryana, with some in Uttar Pradesh.

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Maharana Pratap
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Maharana Pratap is known to be the bravest and most chivalrous Rajput ruler of India. Though he never practically ruled a land, he was a King at heart. He was born in Kumbhalgarh to Rana Udai Singh II in the year 1540 and has a very bright spot in the annals of political history of India. He is known to be the only Rajput ruler who never gave in to Akbar's suzerainty policy. His patriotism to his ancestral land Chittor was incomparable and was his guiding light all his life.

 

Maharana Pratap's biggest and strongest dream was to free Chittor from the clutches of Mughals. Everything he did was towards seeing his dream turn into reality. He never accepted Akbar as the sole ruler of India and foiled Akbar's every plan to win him over. He resented Akbar for killing 27,000 civilians in the siege of Chittor and strongly opposed the policy of Rajput chieftains marrying off their daughters to Mughals.

 

In the meantime, many Rajput chieftains had accepted Akbar as their king and were ruling their territories under him. Akbar repeatedly tried to woo Rana with the help of these Rajput chieftains, but in vain. Soon a conflict broke out and everything was in dismay. Akbar's army led by Rajput sardars stood up against the not very strong yet determined army of Rana Pratap. It was the Battle of Haldighati faught in 1576.

 

Maharana Pratap's army of nearly ten thousand took on a four times larger Mughal Armey. However the Guerrilla tactics of Pratap Singh's army and their ferocity kept the Mughal army at distance. Finally, the Mughal army gathered itself and faced the army of Mewar at a place which is today known as Rakta Talai, the lake of blood at Haldighati.

 

As the intensity of the battle grew, Pratap Singh attacked General Man Singh. While Pratap Singh rode his beloved horse Chetak, Man Singh was seated on an elephant. Pratap Singh bounded on Chetak and drove his spear through the man with the leash of the elephant. However, Chetak was grievously hurt and the situation grew delicate. Rana's general Man Singh, a look alike of Rana took all the royal seals from Rana and asked him to leave the battlefield. He wanted Rana to flee so as to keep the hope for Mewar alive. He died fighting for Rana and his sacrifice is considered to be very valuable. Sadly, Chetak succumbed to his injuries after he took Rana to a safe place. His love and dedication for his master made him immortal in the pages of history.

 

Apart from being a brave warrior and a man of principles, Maharana Pratap is known to be a man of flawless character. He respected women and did nothing that was against rectitude. He died at the age of fifty seven, in a hunting accident. His son, Amar Singh swore to fight against Mughals all his life, but he had to give up conditionally. With his death ended a saga of Rajput bravery and patriotism.

 

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History is full with stories of courage and honour about leaders those who were rich of material resources, but it's rare to find a leader like Maharana Pratap and his loyal followers who had only hardships to offer. The name "Maharana Pratap" has always been held in great honour and respect. Maharana Pratap has always been projected as the premier of patriotism, freedom and independence.

 

Birth and early life of Rana Pratap

pratapjayanti2011Rana Pratap was born to father Maharana Udai Singh II and mother Maharani Javantha Bai Songara on 9th May 1540, (Jyestha Sudi), third day of Vikram Era 1597 in Ardh Naksatra. Though born at Kumbhalgarh fort, some historians believe it to be "Juni Kacheri" near Pali District. His birth was considered auspicious and predictions were made about the Glory he will bring to the clan. His education was worthy of a prince and early he mastered the warfare tactics and weaponry.

Jealousy among the queens of Udai Singh however, resulted in depriving Maharana Pratap from father's love and royalty and forced him to live in village below the ridge of Chittorgarh. There he was raised by his maternal grandfather Akheraj Sonagar(pali) who soon died in a battle.

Maharana Pratap got married to Ajabade(daughter of Rao Ram Rakh Panwar), at the age of 17 and were soon blessed by a son named Amar Singh.

 

Physique of Rana Pratap

There is no confirmed source written in the history of mewar which would authenticate the physical structure of Rana Pratap.

 

Coronation of "Rana Pratap"

gogunda

Maharana Udai Singh II died at the early age of 42 in "Gogunda", leaving behind twenty-five sons. Setting aside the established laws of "Primogenitor", he proclaimed his favorite son "Jagmall" his successor. But surprisingly, in a coronation performed at Gogunda Maharana Pratap was crowned the 54th king in the lineage of Sisodia Rajputs Girding Pratap with the sword, thrice touching the ground, hailed him the "King of Mewar" when Jagmall too was moved out of the seat by Rawat Kistna and ex-prince of Gwalior.

 

Akbars Motive

By the year 1573, Akbar the then Mughal king had control of Chittorgarh. But to realize his dream of being the Jahanpanah of Hindustan he needed to bring the ruling state of Mewar under him which wouldn't be possible under the rule of Maharana Pratap.

Akbar sent six diplomats to get Maharana Pratap agree to the former's servitude whereby the sovereignty and honor of Mewar would remain intact.

However, Maharan Pratap turned down each one of them. The last of these missions were headed by Raja Man Singh, the brother-in-law of Akbar and king of Amber (Jaipur).  Even the lack of recourses never lured him and he scorned comfort and luxury when they had to be bought at the cost of his independence.

For a quarter of a century he withstand the combined effects of the Mogul empire; at one time carrying destruction into the plains, at another flying from rock to rock, feeding his family from fruits of the jungle, and rearing the nursling Hero Amar Singh, amidst savage beasts, and scarce less savage men. Though wealth and fortune tempted the fidelity of his chiefs, not one was found enough to abandon him.

A Short Introduction of the battlegrounds

Warfare Tactics and the Heroes

"Guerrilla Warfare" had been in existence since times unknown, but Rana Pratap was probably the first to use "Organized Guerrilla Warfare" against a mighty enemy and very successfully administered a disastrous blow to the Mughal army.

ranapunjaMany, at times it seemed that Rana Pratap was on the verge of being victorious. To lead his battle against the Mughals Maharana Pratap has the bravest of all brave leaders- Jhala Bida, Hakim Khan Sur, Poonja Bhil ( in photo) including Raja Ram Shah of Gwalior, Rawat Netsi of Kanod, Kishandas Chundawat of Salumber, Bheem singh DodiyaRamdas Rathore of Badnore,Shankardas Rathore of Kelwa, Jhala Maan of Delwara, Ram Singh SandooJaisa Barhat andKeshav Barhat were few of the leaders who laid their lives for the brave Rana Pratap in his efforts to keep the lamp of Independence burning.

 

The Brave Tribe of Bhils

Rana Pratap had the very strong support of the indigenous tribe of Mewar- Bhils, who fought with him to till end and sacrificed their lives for the Honor of their ruler.

Rana Pratap made his descendants Vow that until he brings back the glory of Chittor, he would sleep on straw bed and eat off a Pattras (leaf Plate). Rana Pratap could not win back Chittor and even today, many Rajput follows that promise and places a leaf under their plates and a straw under their bed.

 

Battle of Haldighati 1576 A.D.

pratap-jyanati-2011-2

Akbar launched an offensive against Rana Pratap in A.D. 1576 after all the efforts, to bring Rana Pratap to his servitude failed. Akbar established his headquarters at Ajmer and this became one of the 22 subahs of Akbar's empire.

As a "Guerilla Warfare" tactic Rana Pratap restricted his region in the mountains of Aravali i.e from north to south,Kumbhalgarh to Rishabdev and from west to south Mirpur to Satola. The faithful aborigines " The Bhils" took to field, with Rana Pratap with their ordinary weapon the Bow and Arrow and huge stones ready to roll upon the combatant enemy, above and below the Rajputs were posted and on the cliffs and pinnacles the "Bhils".

To save the honor of their land against the mighty Mughal army with the strength of Two Lakh soldiers. There stood the Twenty Two thousand on that day 7th of Sawan Sanwat 1632(July 1576), for the defense of Haldighati and only eight thousand quitted the field alive.

 

The Turn around

The turning point again came in 1582 when Rana Pratap Inflicted a crushing defeat to the Mughal army in Dewair( the northern entry point of Mewar connecting Marwar, Gujarat, Malwa and Ajmer). From this battle onwards Rana Pratap moved from being defensive to Offensive and in a very short time he regained all the lost land of Mewar except Ajmer and Chittor.

 

The legend of Maharana Pratap

moti-magri

The Legendary Maharana Pratap's Gratitude can be summerised in two incidents.

To save the honor of their land against the mighty Mughal army with the strength of Two Lakh soldiers. There stood the Twenty Two thousand on that day 7th of Sawan Sanwat 1632(July 1576), for the defense of Haldighati and only eight thousand quitted the field alive.

One day Raja Man Singh the commander in chief of the Mughal army was out hunting with a few hundred of his troops. Pratap's Bhil spy reported this to him at his camp a few kilometers away and as he seems to be on a hunting sprawl he can be easily targeted but Maharana Pratap straight forwardly refused to back stab him and defeat him other than that on a battlefield.
Other time the women from the family of Abdur Rahim Khankhana(Mogul commander) were captured by  Pratap's son Amar Singh, and presented in front of the Rana.

At this point of time, Khankhana was actually on the march against Pratap, and was camping at Sherpur. Infuriated and not withstanding this act, immediately Pratap commanded his son Amar Singh to arrange for the safe conveyance of the mogul ladies to their camp. Khankhana was so affected by this incident that he refused to fight against such a chivalrous monarch. He petitioned Akbar to be relieved of his post and was subsequently (in 1581) appointed guardian of Akbar's own son, Salim.

The After Story

chetak

After the Haldighati Battle, Mughal Emperor Akbar made repeated attempts to capture or kill Maharana Pratap, but he did not succeed. Where in the year 1576 he captured Udaipur and named it Mohammadabad and likewise Chittorgarh was named Akbarabad (source), both the names were never accepted. Maharana Pratap served (struggled) for 25 years and died a peaceful death on January 19, 1597 at Chawand, the capital founded by him in deep hills south of Udaipur, the reason of his death being injury caused during a hunting game.

Maharana Pratap's arch foe Mogul Emperor Akbar is believed to have shed tears at end of this brave warrior, because he was the only ruler who refused to compromise his honor for comfort & safety and, in the end, he died a proud and free king. Maharana Pratap was affectionately called "KIKA" especially by the tribal's and the poets.

Maharana Pratap left behind him 17 sons and 5 daughters. It is said that on his death bed the Rana made his eldest son, Amar Singh swear to keep the torch of independence burning and the "aan" of his motherland intact from the "Turks".

It is a very sad saga; we do not have any original portrait of the person we worship so deeply. It is said that there was only one portrait of Rana Pratap made during his struggle against the Moguls, and that one was taken by the British.

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Posted: 26 May 2013 at 9:15am | IP Logged

Maharana Pratap or Pratap Singh was a Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. In popular Indian culture, Pratap is considered to exemplify the qualities like bravery and chivalry to which Rajputs aspire, especially in context of his opposition to the Mughal emperor Akbar. The struggle between Rajput confederacy led by Pratap Singh, and the Mughal Empire under Akbar, has often been characterised in popular Hindutva culture as a struggle between Hindus and the invading Muslims, much on the same lines as the struggle between Shivaji and Aurangzeb a little less than a century later.

Many of the Mughal generals that Pratap Singh fought with, were Hindus and ethnically of the same stock as Pratap Singh himself. Most notable of these, and most successful against Pratap Singh was Man Singh, the ruler of Amber. In fact some of the key allies that Pratap Singh had, were in fact the Afghan Muslims of Bihar and Bengal, all of whom were descendents of Lodhi dynasty, which had been defeated by Mughals under Babur in 1526 A. D. In fact, one of the most trusted foot soldiers of Pratap, Hakim Khan Sur belonged to the Sur dynasty of Sher Shah Sur which again, had been defeated by Akbar earlier. Furthermore, some of the immediate relatives of Pratap Singh had themselves allied with Mughal rule. The ultimate defeat of the Rajput confederacy, was not by any direct Mughal conquest; rather it had been a slow dissolution of the confederacy itself, as more and more number of Rajput chieftains and rulers were accommodated in a largely syncretic Mughal Empire. It is therefore, important to understand that the stand off between Akbar and Pratap Singh, was largely politico-psychological in its nature, and had almost nothing to do with the religion, ethnicity or language.


Maharana Pratap


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