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Nyaya or the system of logic was developed by rishi Gautam. According to Nyaya, obtaining the valid knowledge through logic helps to attain liberation. Nyaya philosophy describes 16 systems or points of understanding, called "Padartha," to extract "basic meanings" of any entity. These are: 1. Pramana (evidences), 2. Prameya (theorem or analysis), 3. Samshaya (doubt or questioning), 4. Prayojana (aim, goal, or purpose), 5. Drashtanta (examples), 6. Siddhanta (conclusion or abstract), 7. Avayava (subdivisions, part, or sections), 8. Tarka (logic or hypothetical reasoning), 9. Nirnaya (descision, final verdict, or settlement), 10. Vada (doctrine, principle, or arguments), 11. Jalpa (debate, hot discussion), 12. Vitanda (quibble or caviling), 13. Hetavabhasa (gross purpose), 14. Chhala (fallacy or tricking), 15. Jati (kind or descent), and 16. Nigrahasthana (point of defeat). All 16 padarthas are further explored. For example, Nyaya school describes four types of reasoning or evidences (pramana): A. Evidences in favor of validity of the knowledge are: direct perception (pratyaksh pramana), inference or guess work (anumana pramana), comparative evidence (upamana pramana), and verbal or testimonial evidence (shabda pramana). B. Evidences in favor of invalidity of the knowledge are: memory (smruti), doubt (samshaya), errors, variability, or vicissitudes (viparyaya), and hypothetical reasoning (tarka). All kinds of the evidences are further explored. For example: direct perception. It can also be of two kinds: laukika or sadharana (ordinary or sensory), and alaukika or asadharana (extra ordinary or extra sensory). Both are further explored. For example, ordinary perceptions can be divided into six categories, namely, auditory, tactile, visual, gustatory, olfactory, and mental. Extra ordinary perceptions are further divided into three varieties: samanya-lakshana (common sense or intuition), gnan-lakshana (calculated or knowledge based from the previous experience), and yogaja (ESP). Perceptions are also divided into: savikalpa (relative) and nirvikalpa (absolute).
This is just to have its idea. Voluminous information can be found from the Nyaya texts.
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Sanakadi Kumars were blessed by Paravti, they'll be with Shivji, the way they wanted, in their intellect, mind etc & they will become Guru themselves.
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Devon Ke Dev Mahadev Picture Gallery #2[NO COMMENTS]
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