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Arid with warm summer and mild winter
Gwadar District, with its 600 kilometres long coast line and un-irrigated tracts of Kulanch and Dasht valleys, has always been an important chapter of Makran's history. The known history of Makran goes back to the time of prophet Dawood when people entombed themselves to avoid famine. The area is said to be possessed by Iranian King Kaus followed by Afrasiab of Turan and then by Kai Khusrau, again an Iranian. Then there is a long list of rulers, including Lehrasp, Gushtasp, Bahman, Huma and Darab, to the year 325 BC when Alexander the Great incidentally found the sea in this area on his way from India to Macedonia.
Institutional History Gwadar:
The first ever local government system introduced in Gwadar was Village Aid programme which was initiated in the whole of Makran district in June 1957. A total of 26 Village Councils were formed with a total strength of 312 councillors. This system was replaced by the Basic Democracies Order of 1959. Under the Basic Democracies system 19 Union Councils and 3 Town Committees were established in the whole of Makran district. In 1969, all these local government institutions were suspended and later on were totally abolished on 22nd January 1972. A new local government system was introduced in 1975 under the Balochistan Local Government Act 1975. This law could not be enforced in its true sense as the elections proposed under this act were never held. In 1979, another local government system was introduced in the country which was implemented in Balochistan under the Balochistan Local Government Ordinance 1980. This system is still enacted in the province. Under the provisions of this law, one District Council, 2 Municipal Committees, 2 Town Committees, and 13 Union Councils are functional in Gwadar district.
Gwadar district, with its 600 kilometres long coast line and un-irrigated tracts of Kulanch and Dasht valleys, has always been an important chapter of Makran's history. The known history of Makran goes back to the time of prophet Dawood when people entombed themselves to avoid famine. The area is said to be possessed by Iranian King Kaus followed by Afrasiab of Turan and then by Kai Khusrau, again an Iranian. Then there is a long list of rulers, including Lehrasp, Gushtasp, Bahman, Huma and Darab, to the year 325 BC when Alexander the Great incidentally found the sea in this area on his way from India to Macedonia. Greek historian Arrian has mentioned the coast line as the country of Ichthyophagoi. At that time Nearchos, the admiral of Alexander, sailed along the coast and mentioned places named Kalmat, Gwadar, Pishukan and Chahbar. Afterwards, the area was ruled by Seleukos Nikator, one of Alexander's generals, who lost it to Chandragupta in 303 BC. Then the tract of history is lost in darkness for centuries. An account of this area is found in the beginning of the sixteenth century when the Portuguese found their way to India and captured several places along the Makran coast. In 1581 they burnt "the rich and beautiful city of Pasni" and Gwadar. Although many invaders conquered the land, mostly the local rulers, including Hots, Rinds, Maliks, Buledais and Gichkis, exercised authority in the area as the conquerors had no intentions to stay there.
Two regimes of local rulers, of Buledais and Gichkis, are worth mentioning here. The Buledais gained power with the rise of the Zikri sect. These rulers are said to be connected with the rulers of Maskat and were called Buledais with reference to the valley of Buleda where they resided. The Buledais ruled the area for more than a century up to the year 1740. In the last years of their regime they embraced Islam. The Zikri folk joined hands with the Gichkis who also were Zikris by faith. The family feuds and internal dissension between Gichkis resulted in nine successful expeditions (either partially or fully) by Mir Nasir Khan I. It is said, that the main motive behind all these expeditions, made by Mir Nasir Khan I, was to eliminate the Zikris as he belonged to the (anti-Zikri) Muslim faith. These expeditions resulted in a division of revenues between the Khan and Gichkis.
In the last quarter of the eighteenth century, Gwadar and the surrounding country fell into the hands of Maskat. Saiad Said succeeded to the masnad of Muscat in 1783 and had a dispute with his brother Saiad Sultan. The latter appears to have fled to Makran and entered into communication with Nasir Khan who granted him the Kalat share of the revenues of Gwadar. Saiad Sultan lived at Gwadar for some time and eventually succeeded in usurping the Sultanate of Maskat in 1797. He died in 1804 and during his sons reign, the Buledai chief of Sarbaz, Mir Dosten, is said to have acquired temporary possession of Gwadar, but a force sent from Maskat regained it. Although it is generally understood that the right of sovereignty in Gwadar was transferred by the Khans of Kalat to Maskat in perpetuity, the Khans and natives of Gwadar have always denounced this perception. The un-irrigated tracts of Kulanch and Dasht valleys have always been connected with Kech.
The first Afghan war (1838-39) directed attention of the British to the area. Major Goldsmith visited the area in 1861 and an Assistant Political Agent was appointed in Gwadar in 1863. Both Pasni and Gwadar have been ports of call for the steamers of the British India Steam Navigation Company. The first ever telegraphic link to this area was made in 1863 when Gwadar was linked to Karachi. Telegraph offices were opened at Gwadar and Pasni. Later post offices were opened at Gwadar in 1894 and at Pasni in 1903. Ormara was linked telegraphically in 1904.
After the division of the Indian subcontinent into two sovereign states, areas except Gwadar and its surroundings, joined the Balochistan States Union, as part of Makran state. In early 1949 along with Kalat, Lasbela and Kharan. In October 1955, Makran was given the status of a district of former West Pakistan province after its accession to Pakistan. In 1958, Gwadar and its surrounding area was reverted back from Maskat to Pakistan and was made a tehsil of Makran district. On 1st July 1970, when one unit was dissolved and Balochistan gained the status of a province, Makran became one of its 8 districts. On 1st July 1977, Makran was declared a division and was divided into three districts, named Panjgur, Turbat (renamed Kech) and Gwadar. Gwadar was notified as a district on July 1, 1977 with its headquarters at Gwadar town.
A stone-built domed shrine of some saint at Gwadar is said to be centuries old. It may be the same one indicated in the Gazetteer of Balochistan. A square fort along with a tower is present amidst the Memon Muhallah of Gwadar. It is near the old bungalow of the Assistant Political Agent to the Governor General (therefore renowned as governor's house). Moreover, the fort of Saiad Sultan is still in good condition and is being used as a police station.
The climate of Gwadar, elevated at 0-300 meters above sea level, is dry arid hot. It is placed in "warm summer and mild winter" temperature region. The oceanic influence keeps the temperature lower than that in the interior in summer and higher in winter. The mean temperature in the hottest month (June) remains between 31C and 32. The mean temperature in the coolest month (January) varies from 18C to 19C. The uniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the coastal region in Balochistan. Occasionally, winds moving down the Balochistan plateau bring brief cold spells, otherwise the winter is pleasant. In Gwadar, winter is shorter than summer. It stays only from December through February (3 months) while summer starts in March and prolongs up to November (9 months). Mean monthly temperature in summer remains between 21C and 32C. In the coldest month, January, the mean monthly temperature remains above 10C. Freezing temperature has been recorded at Pasni but nowhere else in the district.
Aridity prevails all over the district because average annual rainfall is below 250 mm and in some years annual rainfall was even below 100 mm. Both the monsoons and the Western Depressions result in scanty rainfall but overall precipitation level remains low. According to the Pakistan Meteorological Department, total annual precipitation in 1994 was 159.1 mm at Pasni and 110.6 mm at Jiwani.
Annual Mean Rainfall
The Pakistan Meteorological Department has two stations in Gwadar district but meteorological data is not being compiled properly. However the available rainfall data for the last three years confirm the "dry arid" climatic category of the area. There is no regular pattern of rainfall in the district. In 1993, total annual rainfall at Jiwani was 27.0 mm while in 1994 it was 110.6 mm. In 1995, rainfall in just one month exceeded the total annual precipitation in 1994 as it was 113.0 mm in December 1995. The extent of precipitation affects the supply of drinking water in Gwadar district as most of it is provided from reservoirs which are rain-dependent.
Annual Mean Temperature
At Pasni and Jiwani stations of the Pakistan Meteorological Department, mid summer mean maximum temperature (in June) varied slightly in the years 1993 to 1995 (from 34.5C to 35.5C) while mid summer mean minimum temperature ranged from 25.0C to 27.4C. The mid winter mean maximum temperature (in January) in these three years was between 24.6C and 26.0C and mean minimum temperature in mid winter remained between 11.3C and 15.0C. The data on temperature seem consistent through the years as the annual mean maximum temperature for the years 1993 to 1995 ranged from 30.3C to 31.4C. Similarly annual mean minimum temperature for these three years varied from 20.0C to 21.3C. This data validates the climatic categorization of the district as "warm summer and mild winter" because mean monthly temperature in summer was around 30C and mean monthly temperature in winter remained around 19C. These temperatures are within the temperature ranges for "warm summer and cool winter" region.
Edited by CuteFairy91 - 01 April 2006 at 2:09pm