Joined: 17 January 2010
Born in Perumthanam, Kollam district, Kerala. After a brief stint with journalism and then studying political science at the London School of Economics with the assistance of a scholarship, Narayanan began his career in India as a member of the Indian Foreign Service under Nehru administration. He served as ambassador to Japan, United Kingdom, Thailand, Turkey, People's Republic of China and United States of America and was referred by Nehru as "the best diplomat of the country". He entered politics at Indira Gandhi's request and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha and served as a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Elected as the ninth Vice-President in 1992, Narayanan went on to become the President of India in 1997. under the
Narayanan is regarded as an independent and assertive President who set several precedents and enlarged the scope of the highest constitutional office. He described himself as a "working President" who worked "within the four corners of the Constitution"; He used his discretionary powers as a President and deviated from convention and precedent in many situations, including - but not limited to ' the appointment of the Prime Minister in a hung Parliament, in dismissing a state government and imposing President's rule there at the suggestion of the Union Cabinet, and during the Kargil conflict. He presided over the golden jubilee celebrations of Indian independence and in the country's general election of 1998 became the first Indian President to vote when in office, setting another new precedent.
K.G. Balakrishnan (Current Chief Justice of India: First Dalit to become Chief Justice of India)
Coming to women the most popular 'extremist women freedom fighter' of India is from Kerala- 'Captain Lakshmi'.
Lakshmi Sahgal (or Sehgal) ne Swaminathan, also known as Captain
is an activist of the Indian independence movement, an ex-officer of the
Indian National Army, and the Minister
of Women's affairs in the Azad Hind Government. A doctor
by profession, Captain Lakshmi came into the limelight in India towards
the end of World War II for her role as the commander o
the Rani of Jhansi Regiment of the INA
and her role as a minister in Subhas Chandra Bose's Azad Hind government. She later
became involved in politics in independent India, serving as a member
of parliament in the Upper House and later running for President as a left wing candidate. Lt Col Swaminathan is
commonly referred to as Captain Lakshmi in India, referring to her rank
at the time of being taken prisoner in Burma, as widely reported in
Indian newspapers at the end of the war and which captured the public
imagination, as opposed to her not widely known promotion in the last
days of Azad Hind.
Joined: 17 January 2010
Joined: 19 February 2010
Condition of 'women' and 'backward classes' in India after 6 decades of independence
Dravidians the earliest inhabitants of the country had a well structured administrative and social system thousands of years back, before the advent of Aryans. Women had a very important role in the society. When Aryans who were nomads, reached India they were amazed at what they saw here. Well structured economy, cities, flourishing trade, art forms.( best example is Indus Valley civilization) Aryans being a warrior clan defeated the peaceloving Dravidians without much effort. What happened then? Social system started degrading. Condition of women and backward classes became worse with the passage of time. Sati, untouchability and all such barbarian customs evolved and lead to the stagnation of society.
In India 95% of prominent public representatives, corporate leaders and top bureaucrats are 'men' belonging to forward castes. Why? Why dont we have more representation from members of 'backward castes' and from among 'women'. Backward classes constitute majority of the countries population. Brahmins constitute a very small minority of less than 5% of India's population. But they hold majority of the powerful positions even after 60 years of independance. Why? Why women and backward classes are segregated from power and wealth? Remember the words of the great revolutionary, 'Bhagat Singh' : "Once the british leave, the elite classes will take up their position and continue exploiting the masses."
Some great reformers emerged from backward communities during the british rule including Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Sree Narayana Guru (whom even Mahathma Gandhi considered as a guru) E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, Jyotiba Phule e.t.c. These powerful leaders tried to reform the society. They tried to uplift their downtrodden brethen through various movements. Ambedkar recommended mass conversion to Buddhism to escape the shackles of caste system. Sree Narayana Guru gave the slogan "One caste, one religion, one god for man". Many of the social reform movements which occurred at the same time as our freedom movement saw success mainly in South India. In North India all such movements were crushed by the landlord class. Today the states which can boast of least caste based and gender based discrimination are Kerala and Andra Pradesh.
What is happening in other Indian states?
Atrocities against backward classes (Source: Wikipedia)
In Rajasthan, between the years 1999 and 2002, crimes against Dalits average at about 5024 a year, with 46 killings and 138 cases of rape. In January 2007, a Jat girl was thrown into a canal near the border with Haryana for marrying a Dalit boy, although she swam to shore and was rescued by strangers.
Ranvir Sena is an caste-supremacist fringe paramilitary group based in Bihar. The group is based amongst the forward-caste landlord, and carries out actions against the outlawed naxals in rural areas. It has committed violent acts against Dalits and other members of the scheduled caste community in an effort to scuttle reform movements aimed at their emancipation.
On the evening of January 5, 2006 Bant Singh, a poor Sikh Dalit, was attacked by unknown assailants. His injuries necessitated medical amputation. He alleges that this was in retaliation for actively working to secure justice for his daughter, who was gang raped by upper caste members of his village in Punjab five years earlier.
A 55-year-old Dalit Sikh woman, Sawinder Kaur has been tortured, stripped and tied to a tree in Ram Duali village of Punjab because her nephew eloped with a girl from the same community. The police arrested four persons for allegedly committing the crime on 9 September 2007.
In January, 1999 four members of the village panchayat of Bhungar Khera village in Abohar paraded a handicapped Dalit woman naked through the village. No action was taken by the police, despite local Dalit protests. It was only on July 20 that the four pancha yat members were arrested, after the State Home Department was compelled to order an inquiry into the incident.
In Amritsar, a Sikh mother of four children, Gurmeet Kaur was allegedly paraded naked by a father and son duo at the bus station of Jhamaka village falling under Chabhal police station on Sunday.
A Dalit Sikh woman, Sukhwinder Kaur of Sumel Kheri village was molested and beaten up by an octroi contractor of Malaudh when she resisted his attempt to sexually exploit her.
On September 29, 2006, four members of the Bhotmange family belonging to the DalitBhandara district of Maharashtra. The women of the family, Surekha and Priyanka, were paraded naked in public, then allegedly gang-raped before being murdered.
Atrocities against women (Source: Wikipedia)
A 1997 report claimed that at least 5,000 women die each year because of dowry deaths, and at least a dozen die each day in 'kitchen fires' thought to be intentional. The term for this is "bride burning" and is criticized within India itself. Amongst the urban educated, such dowry abuse has reduced considerably.
Child marriage has been traditionally prevalent in India and continues to this day. Historically, young girls would live with their parents till they reached puberty. In the past, the child widows were condemned to a life of great agony, shaving heads, living in isolation, and shunned by the society. Although child marriage was outlawed in 1860, it is still a common practice.
According to UNICEF's "State of the World's Children-2009" report, 47% of India's women aged 20'24 were married before the legal age of 18, with 56% in rural areas. The report also showed that 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.
India has a highly masculine sex ratio, the chief reason being that many women die before reaching adulthood. Tribal societies in India have a less masculine sex ratio than all other caste groups. This, in spite of the fact that tribal communities have far lower levels of income, literacy and health facilities. It is therefore suggested by many experts, that the highly masculine sex ratio in India can be attributed to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions.
All medical tests that can be used to determine the sex of the child have been banned in India, due to incidents of these tests being used to get rid of unwanted female children before birth. Female infanticide (killing of girl infants) is still prevalent in some rural areas. The abuse of the dowry tradition has been one of the main reasons for sex-selective abortions and female infanticides in India.
The incidents of domestic violence are higher among the lower Socio-Economic Classes (SECs) The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 came into force on October 26, 2006.
The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act was passed in 1956. However many cases of trafficking of young girls and women have been reported. These women are either forced into prostitution, domestic work or child labor.
The average female life expectancy today in India is low compared to many countries, but it has shown gradual improvement over the years. In many families, especially rural ones, the girls and women face nutritional discrimination within the family, and are anaemic and malnourished.
The maternal mortality in India is the second highest in the world. Only 42% of births in the country are supervised by health professionals. Most women deliver with help from women in the family who often lack the skills and resources to save the mother's life if it is in danger. According to UNDP Human Development Report (1997), 88% of pregnant women (age 15-49) were found to be suffering from anemia.
The average woman in rural areas of India has little or no control over her reproductivity. Women, particularly women in rural areas, do not have access to safe and self-controlled methods of contraception..
|Year||Crime against SCs||Crime against STs|
Joined: 17 January 2010
Joined: 19 February 2010
Joined: 19 February 2010
Joined: 17 January 2010
Joined: 08 December 2009
Is there still a need for caste?
Author: _Angie_ Replies: 43 Views: 4443
|_Angie_||43||4443||19 June 2010 at 12:12am by qwertyesque|
Is this discrimination....???
Author: bunbutt_too Replies: 3 Views: 764
|bunbutt_too||3||764||09 June 2008 at 9:52pm by bunbutt_too|
India is not India...it's America...
Author: SmarterDesiKid Replies: 10 Views: 4240
|SmarterDesiKid||10||4240||10 August 2007 at 10:59pm by UDman|
~~~Caste system- whats the need?~~~
Author: AmritaRao-Nina Replies: 24 Views: 2768
|AmritaRao-Nina||24||2768||02 July 2007 at 2:05am by kabhi_21|
Author: ELAS101 Replies: 58 Views: 6235
|ELAS101||58||6235||27 June 2007 at 7:20am by aishiya|
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